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Створити нову тему Відповісти  [ 3 повідомлень ] 
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 Тема повідомлення: Кольори ВМ в кожному стані зелені чи червоні?
ПовідомленняДодано: 24 квітня 2017, 00:23 

З нами з: 29 листопада 2013, 17:11
Повідомлення: 4689
Тема яка постійно піднімається, тому вирішив вивести в окреме обговорення. У даній темі усі звикли спорити, хоча в стандарті ISA-101 кажуть що як зелені так червоні - погані кольори для зображення НОРМАЛЬНОГО стану ВМ чи будь-якого іншого елементу.
Пряма вирізка з 5-го розділу який обов'язковий при посиланні на стандарт:
Цитата: Color
Color perception deficiencies (for example, color-blindness or age-related deficiencies) and visual presentation of color combinations should be considered during design. Common types of color blindness include red-green, green-yellow, and white-cyan. Appropriate differential contrast and brightness should be utilized. The chosen colors should be distinguishable from each other by the user population, generally involving usability testing. As a general rule, color should be used for emphasizing key information such as alarms and abnormal conditions.
Contrast and brightness may be utilized within the context of the operating environment to accommodate color-blindness. Consideration should be given to age-related vision deficiencies, if applicable in the user environment. Age-related deficiencies include:
a) difficulties with focus on near field information,
b) decrease in the ability to refocus quickly between near and far objects,
c) chromatic distortions related to lens discoloration that tends to dull blues and purples to gray.
The placement and adjustability of monitors should consider the use of various corrective lenses (e.g., bifocals, trifocals, and progressive lenses).
In accordance with the facility’s alarm philosophy and ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009, colors used for alarm presentation should be reserved and not used for any other purpose in order to strengthen their cognitive meaning and speed of operator response to alarms. Color should not be relied on as the sole indicator of an important condition. Color coding should be redundant to other means of presenting the information including, but not limited to, shape, text, brightness, size and texture. The selection of colors used on a display should reflect the importance of the information being presented. The most noticeable colors of a display should be used for the information that is most important. Important information should be more perceptually salient than less important information.
Further color coding can be used for emphasis and clarity. Color gradients should not be used for static or non-dynamic elements on the display, but may be used to highlight a dynamic element.
Color should be used conservatively and consistently to denote information throughout the HMI. Color and/or flashing of symbols (see Clause should direct the operator's attention to newly developing critical situations.

 Тема повідомлення: Re: Кольори ВМ в кожному стані зелені чи червоні?
ПовідомленняДодано: 24 квітня 2017, 00:26 

З нами з: 29 листопада 2013, 17:11
Повідомлення: 4689
Цитата: Background-foreground interactions
The following items relate to background-foreground interactions:
a) The background should be an unsaturated or neutral color (e g., light gray) in order to limit chromatic distortions and ensure the salience of the information displayed. For example, in most applications, the use of background colors that may cause excessive contrast (e.g., black) should be avoided.
b) Foreground and background color combinations should provide sufficient contrast.
c) The background color should be selected to provide acceptable and sufficient contrast in expected ambient lighting conditions.
It is helpful to test a colored image by rendering it into grayscale to ensure all element combinations have sufficient contrast to be detectable by a user with color deficiency.

 Тема повідомлення: Re: Кольори ВМ в кожному стані зелені чи червоні?
ПовідомленняДодано: 24 квітня 2017, 00:29 

З нами з: 29 листопада 2013, 17:11
Повідомлення: 4689
Цитата: Density of displayed information
The information density of a display should be based on the function or purpose of the display, tempered by human perception limits. Display pertinent information that can be quickly interpreted by the operator while avoiding unnecessary information. Display elements should be placed consistently and aligned spatially to avoid clutter. If initial user requirements specifications result in excessive information on a single display, it may be necessary to redesign. Redesign options include:
a) consolidating data into information of a lesser overall screen density,
b) using the most effective display style for more effective operator interpretation,
c) providing some information on demand only,
d) splitting the display into multiple displays.
Information presented to the user should be based on the function and task analysis results. Visual dynamics
Because of limits to perception and cognition, only a limited number of colors can be used effectively on displays. As a result, visual dynamic coding techniques such as motion, blinking, flashing, and conditional visibility can be used to draw the operator's attention to specific information.
Motion uses changes in position, rotation, or size of graphic elements or graphic symbols to simulate movement.
Blinking alternately renders a graphic element visible and not visible. An example of a typical blinking element is a text insertion cursor.
Flashing is the repeated alternation of color(s) or intensity of a graphic element (such as swapping foreground and background colors) which never renders the element invisible.
Excessive or persistent motion, blinking or flashing can be distracting. The following design concepts should be employed to manage animation:
a) Blinking should be reserved for items which are intended to appear and disappear, such as symbols or borders for unacknowledged alarm identification.
b) Text and numbers themselves should not move or blink, because the changing position or angle, or the alternating appearance and disappearance of the text or numbers, make reading them difficult.
c) No part of the display should blink or flash unless an action is required by the operator. The use of visual dynamics should be reserved for highlighting abnormal situations, or situations requiring operator attention (e.g., an alarm indication).
d ) A means of stopping the blinking or flashing should be made available to the operator.

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