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 Тема повідомлення: Книги англійською
ПовідомленняДодано: 24 квітня 2014, 22:01 
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Instrument Engineers Handbook - Process Measurement And Analysis Vol.1. ed.4
  + Зміст
Contributors xiii
Introduction xxi
Definitions xxvii
Abbreviations, Nomenclature, Acronyms, and Symbols xxxix
Societies and Organizations li
1 General Considerations
    1.1 Flowsheet Symbols and P&I Diagrams 4
    1.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 31
    1.3 Instrument Terminology and Performance 46
    1.4 System Accuracy 78
    1.5 Uncertainty Calculations 86
    1.6 Configuring Intelligent Devices 93
    1.7 Instrument Installation 100
    1.8 Instrument Calibration 108
    1.9 Response Time and Drift Testing 114
    1.10 Redundant and Voting Systems 126
    1.11 Instrument Evaluation 136
    1.12 Binary Logic Diagrams 142
2 Flow Measurement 151
    2.1 Application and Selection 156
    2.2 Anemometers 173
    2.3 BTU Flowmeters for Heat Exchangers 177
    2.4 BTU Flowmeters for Gaseous Fuels 180
    2.5 Cross-Correlation Flow Metering 183
    2.6 Elbow Taps 189
    2.7 Flow Switches 193
    2.8 Jet Deflection Flow Detectors 198
    2.9 Laminar Flowmeters 201
    2.10 Magnetic Flowmeters 208
    2.11 Mass Flowmeters, Coriolis 225
    2.12 Mass Flowmeters—Miscellaneous 237
    2.13 Mass Flowmeters—Thermal 244
    2.14 Metering Pumps 251
    2.15 Orifices 259
    2.16 Pitot Tubes and Area Averaging Units 277
    2.17 Polyphase (Oil/Water/Gas) Flowmeters 287
    2.18 Positive-Displacement Gas Flowmeters 294
    2.19 Positive-Displacement Liquid Meters and Provers 299
    2.20 Purge Flow Regulators 307
    2.21 Segmental Wedge Flowmeter 310
    2.22 Sight Flow Indicators 313
    2.23 Solids Flowmeters and Feeders 318
    2.24 Target Meters 335
    2.25 Turbine and Other Rotary Element Flowmeters 337
    2.26 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 357
    2.27 Variable-Area, Gap, and Vane Flowmeters 362
    2.28 V-Cone Flowmeter 371
    2.29 Venturi Tubes, Flow Tubes, and Flow Nozzles 374
    2.30 Vortex and Fluidic Flowmeters 384
    2.31 Weirs and Flumes 395
3 Level Measurement 401
    3.1 Application and Selection 405
    3.2 Bubblers 421
    3.3 Capacitance and Radio Frequency (RF) Admittance 430
    3.4 Conductivity and Field-Effect Level Switches 445
    3.5 Diaphragm Level Detectors 449
    3.6 Differential Pressure Level Detectors 454
    3.7 Displacer Level Devices 465
    3.8 Float Level Devices 474
    3.9 Laser Level Sensors 482
    3.10 Level Gauges, Including Magnetic 486
    3.11 Microwave Level Switches 497
    3.12 Optical Level Devices 500
    3.13 Radar, Noncontacting Level Sensors 504
    3.14 Radar, Contact Level Sensors (TDR, GWR, PDS) 508
    3.15 Radiation Level Sensors 514
    3.16 Resistance Tapes 526
    3.17 Rotating Paddle Switches 530
    3.18 Tank Gauges Including Float-Type Tape Gauges 533
    3.19 Thermal Level Sensors 544
    3.20 Ultrasonic Level Detectors 548
    3.21 Vibrating Level Switches 556
4 Temperature Measurement 561
    4.1 Application and Selection 565
    4.2 Bimetallic Thermometers 590
    4.3 Calibrators and Simulators 594
    4.4 Cones, Crayons, Labels, Paints, and Pellets 599
    4.5 Fiber-Optic Thermometers 604
    4.6 Filled-Bulb and Glass-Stem Thermometers 610
    4.7 Integrated Circuitry Transistors and Diodes 620
    4.8 Miscellaneous and Discontinued Sensors 623
    4.9 Radiation and Infrared Pyrometers 630
    4.10 Resistance Temperature Detectors 645
    4.11 Temperature Switches and Thermostats 657
    4.12 Thermistors 666
    4.13 Thermocouples 673
    4.14 Thermowells 697
    4.15 Ultrasonic and Sonic Thermometers 705
5 Pressure Measurement 709
    5.1 Selection and Application 712
    5.2 Accessories (Seals, Snubbers, Calibrators, Manifolds) 718
    5.3 Bellows-Type Pressure Sensors 726
    5.4 Bourdon and Helical Pressure Sensors 731
    5.5 Diaphragm or Capsule-Type Sensors 736
    5.6 Differential Pressure Instruments 743
    5.7 Electronic Pressure Sensors 751
    5.8 High-Pressure Sensors 762
    5.9 Manometers 766
    5.10 Multiple Pressure Scanners 774
    5.11 Pressure Gauges 779
    5.12 Pressure Repeaters 785
    5.13 Pressure and Differential Pressure Switches 790
    5.14 Vacuum Sensors 795
6 Density Measurement 807
    6.1 Density: Applications and Selection 809
    6.2 Displacement- and Float-Type Densitometers 816
    6.3 Hydrometers 823
    6.4 Hydrostatic Densitometers 826
    6.5 Oscillating Coriolis Densitometer (Gas, Liquid, and Slurry Services) 831
    6.6 Radiation Densitometers 836
    6.7 Ultrasonic Sludge and Slurry Densitometers 841
    6.8 Liquid/Slurry/Gas Density—Vibrating Densitometers 844
    6.9 Weight-Based and Miscellaneous Densitometers 852
    6.10 Gas Densitometers 857
7 Safety and Miscellaneous Sensors 865
    7.1 Boroscopes 872
    7.2 Electrical and Intrinsic Safety 875
    7.3 Electrical Meters and Sensors 889
    7.4 Energy Management Devices (Peak Load Shedding) 903
    7.5 Excess Flow and Regular Check Valves 908
    7.6 Explosion Suppression and Deluge Systems 912
    7.7 Flame Arresters, Conservation Vents, and Emergency Vents 920
    7.8 Flame, Fire, and Smoke Detectors 928
    7.9 Leak Detectors 936
    7.10 Linear and Angular Position Detection 944
    7.11 Machine Vision Technology 951
    7.12 Metal Detectors 955
    7.13 Noise Sensors 958
    7.14 Proximity Sensors and Limit Switches 964
    7.15 Relief Valves—Determination of Required Capacity 973
    7.16 Relief Valves—Sizing, Specification, and Installation 991
    7.17 Rupture Discs 1018
    7.18 Soft Sensors 1030
    7.19 Tachometers and Angular Speed Detectors 1038
    7.20 Thickness and Dimension Measurement 1045
    7.21 Torque and Force Transducers 1051
    7.22 Vibration, Shock, and Acceleration 1061
    7.23 Weather Stations 1077
    7.24 Weighing Systems: General Considerations 1084
    7.25 Weight Sensors 1101
8 Analytical Instrumentation 1127
    8.1 Analyzer Application and Selection 1144
    8.2 Analyzer Sampling: Process Samples 1170
    8.3 Analyzer Sampling: Stack Particulates 1189
    8.4 Analyzers Operating on Electrochemical Principles 1198
    8.5 Air Quality Monitoring 1207
    8.6 Biometers 1222
    8.7 Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, and Total Oxygen Demand 1224
    8.8 Calorimeters 1235
    8.9 Carbon Dioxide 1242
    8.10 Carbon Monoxide 1245
    8.11 Chlorine 1251
    8.12 Chromatographs: Gas 1258
    8.13 Chromatographs: Liquid 1289
    8.14 Coal Analyzers 1295
    8.15 Colorimeters 1299
    8.16 Combustibles 1304
    8.17 Conductivity Analyzers 1316
    8.18 Consistency Analyzers 1323
    8.19 Corrosion Monitoring 1329
    8.20 Differential Vapor Pressure Sensor 1335
    8.21 Dioxin Analysis 1339
    8.22 Elemental Monitors 1342
    8.23 Fiber-Optic Probes 1347
    8.24 Fluoride Analyzers 1353
    8.25 Hydrocarbon Analyzers 1358
    8.26 Hydrogen Sulfide 1364
    8.27 Infrared and Near-Infrared Analyzers 1369
    8.28 Ion-Selective Electrodes 1388
    8.29 Mass Spectrometers 1399
    8.30 Mercury in Ambient Air 1407
    8.31 Mercury in Water 1413
    8.32 Moisture in Air: Humidity and Dew Point 1420
    8.33 Moisture in Gases and Liquids 1434
    8.34 Moisture in Solids 1450
    8.35 Molecular Weight 1457
    8.36 Nitrate, Ammonia, and Total Nitrogen 1469
    8.37 Nitrogen Oxide Analyzers 1474
    8.38 Odor Detection 1480
    8.39 Oil in or on Water 1486
    8.40 Open Path Spectrophotometry (UV, IR, FT-IR) 1493
    8.41 Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) 1506
    8.42 Oxygen in Gases 1514
    8.43 Oxygen in Liquids (Dissolved Oxygen) 1526
    8.44 Ozone in Gas 1536
    8.45 Ozone in Water 1540
    8.46 Particulates, Opacity, Dust, and Smoke 1544
    8.47 Particle Size and Distribution Monitors 1559
    8.48 pH Measurement 1565
    8.49 Phosphorus Analyzer 1585
    8.50 Physical Properties Analyzers—ASTM Methods 1589
    8.51 Raman Analyzers 1606
    8.52 Refractometers 1620
    8.53 Rheometers 1628
    8.54 Streaming Current or Particle Charge Analyzer 1637
    8.55 Sulfur-in-Oil Analyzers 1641
    8.56 Sulfur Oxide Analyzers 1646
    8.57 Thermal Conductivity Detectors 1653
    8.58 Total Carbon Analyzers 1658
    8.59 Toxic Gas Monitoring 1666
    8.60 Turbidity, Sludge, and Suspended Solids 1680
    8.61 Ultraviolet and Visible Analyzers 1687
    8.62 Viscometers—Application and Selection 1700
    8.63 Viscometers—Laboratory 1708
    8.64 Viscometers—Industrial 1723
    8.65 Water Quality Monitoring 1744
    8.66 Wet Chemistry and Autotitrator Analyzers 1755
Appendix 1765
    A.1 International System of Units 1767
    A.2 Engineering Conversion Factors 1777
    A.3 Chemical Resistance of Materials 1799
    A.4 Composition of Metallic and Other Materials 1806
    A.5 Steam and Water Tables 1809
    A.6 Friction Loss in Pipes 1817
    A.7 Tank Volumes 1821
    A.8 Directory of “Lost” Companies 1824


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 Тема повідомлення: Re: Книги англійською
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Instrument Engineers Handbook - Process Control And Optimization Vol.2. ed.4
  + Зміст
Contributors xi
Introduction xix
Definitions xxix
Societies and Organizations li
Abbreviations, Nomenclature, Acronyms, and Symbols liii
1 General 1
    1.1 Analog vs. Digital Instruments 3
    1.2 Computer Configurations of Supervisory Units 15
    1.3 Computers—Simulation by Analog and Hybrid Systems 26
    1.4 Electronic vs. Pneumatic Instruments 41
    1.5 Human Engineering 46
    1.6 Process Alarm Management 59
    1.7 Speech Synthesis and Voice Recognition 64
    1.8 Wiring Practices and Signal Conditioning 71
2 Control Theory 89
    2.1 Control Basics 96
    2.2 Control Modes—PID Controllers 114
    2.3 Control Modes—PID Variations 124
    2.4 Control Modes—Digital PID Controllers 130
    2.5 Control Modes —Closed-Loop Response 135
    2.6 Control Systems—Cascade Loops 148
    2.7 Empirical Process Optimization 157
    2.8 Expert Systems 162
    2.9 Feedback and Feedforward Control 173
    2.10 Genetic and Other Evolutionary Algorithms 181
    2.11 Hierarchical Control 193
    2.12 Interaction and Decoupling 205
    2.13 Model-Based Control 209
    2.14 Model-Based Predictive Control Patents 214
    2.15 Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) Control 224
    2.16 Modeling and Simulation of Processes 234
    2.17 Model Predictive Control and Optimization 242
    2.18 Neural Networks for Process Modeling 253
    2.19 Nonlinear and Adaptive Control 265
    2.20 Optimizing Control 274
    2.21 PID Algorithms and Programming 284
    2.22 Process Gains, Time Lags, Reaction Curves 296
    2.23 Ratio Control 305
    2.24 Real-Time Performance Assessment 311
    2.25 Relative Gain Calculations 318
    2.26 Robustness: A Guide for Sensitivity and Stability 323
    2.27 Sampled Data Control Systems 326
    2.28 Selective, Override, and Limit Controls 336
    2.29 Self-Tuning Controllers 345
    2.30 Sliding Mode Control in Process Industry 351
    2.31 Software for Fuzzy Logic Control 360
    2.32 Stability Analysis, Transfer Functions 375
    2.33 State Space Control 393
    2.34 Statistical Process Control 405
    2.35 Tuning PID Controllers 414
    2.36 Tuning Level Control Loops 432
    2.37 Tuning Interacting Loops, Synchronizing Loops 442
    2.38 Tuning by Computer 446
3 Transmitters and Local Controllers 457
    3.1 Controllers—Pneumatic 460
    3.2 Controllers—Electronic 478
    3.3 Converters and Dampeners 488
    3.4 Relays for Computing and Programmers 493
    3.5 Telemetering Systems 507
    3.6 Transmitters—Electronic 520
    3.7 Transmitters—Fiber-Optic Transmission 535
    3.8 Transmitters—Pneumatic 547
    3.9 Transmitters: Self-Checking and Self-Validating 559
    3.10 Transmitters: Smart, Multivariable, and Fieldbus 567
4 Control Room Equipment 575
    4.1 Annunciators and Alarms 580
    4.2 Control Centers and Panels—Traditional 598
    4.3 Control Center Upgrading 618
    4.4 Controllers—Electronic Analog and Digital 633
    4.5 CRT Displays 650
    4.6 DCS: Basic Trends and Advances 663
    4.7 DCS: Control and Simulation Advances 677
    4.8 DCS: Installation and Commissioning 687
    4.9 DCS: Integration with Buses and Networks 693
    4.10 DCS: Integration with Other Systems 700
    4.11 DCS: Management of Abnormal Situations 706
    4.12 DCS: Modern Control Graphics 720
    4.13 DCS: Operator’s Graphics 727
    4.14 DCS: System Architecture 739
    4.15 Digital Readouts and Graphic Displays 757
    4.16 Fieldbuses and Network Protocols 770
    4.17 Human–Machine Interface Evolution 790
    4.18 Indicators, Analog Displays 805
    4.19 Lights 812
    4.20 Recorders, Oscillographs, Loggers, Tape Recorders 818
    4.21 Switches, Pushbuttons, Keyboards 829
    4.22 Touch Screen Displays 845
    4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 854
    4.24 Workstation Designs 868
5 PLCs and Other Logic Devices 877
    5.1 Binary Logic Diagrams for Process Operations 880
    5.2 Ladder Diagrams 893
    5.3 Optimization of Logic Circuits 898
    5.4 PLCs: Programmable Logic Controllers 906
    5.5 PLC Programming 944
    5.6 PLC Software Advances 966
    5.7 Practical Logic Design 976
    5.8 Programmable Safety Systems 993
    5.9 Relays 1006
    5.10 Solid-State Logic Elements 1015
    5.11 System Integration: Computers with PLCs 1023
    5.12 Time Delay Relays 1030
    5.13 Timers and Programming Timers 1036
6 Control Valve Selection and Sizing 1045
    6.1 Application and Selection of Control Valves 1050
    6.2 Accessories and Positioners 1087
    6.3 Actuators: Digital, Electric, Hydraulic, Solenoid 1105
    6.4 Actuators: Pneumatic 1124
    6.5 Advanced Stem Packing Designs 1144
    6.6 Capacity Testing 1150
    6.7 Characteristics and Rangeability 1154
    6.8 Diagnostics and Predictive Valve Maintenance 1161
    6.9 Dynamic Performance of Control Valves 1165
    6.10 Emergency Partial-Stroke Testing of Block Valves 1172
    6.11 Fieldbus and Smart Valves 1182
    6.12 Intelligent Valves, Positioners, Accessories 1193
    6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1199
    6.14 Valves: Noise Calculation, Prediction, and Reduction 1213
    6.15 Sizing 1234
    6.16 Valve Types: Ball Valves 1262
    6.17 Valve Types: Butterfly Valves 1273
    6.18 Valve Types: Digital Valves 1284
    6.19 Valve Types: Globe Valves 1290
    6.20 Valve Types: Pinch Valves 1323
    6.21 Valve Types: Plug Valves 1341
    6.22 Valve Types: Saunders Diaphragm Valves 1348
    6.23 Valve Types: Sliding Gate Valves 1353
7 Regulators and Final Control Elements 1359
    7.1 Dampers and Louvers 1362
    7.2 Electric Energy Modulation 1368
    7.3 Linear and Angular Positioning of Machinery 1375
    7.4 Pumps as Control Elements 1382
    7.5 Regulators—Flow 1397
    7.6 Regulators—Level 1405
    7.7 Regulators— Pressure 1412
    7.8 Regulators—Temperature 1426
    7.9 Thermostats and Humidistats 1440
    7.10 Variable-Speed Drives 1454
8 Control and Optimization of Unit Operations 1473
    8.1 Aeration and DO Controls 1484
    8.2 Airhandler and Building Conditioning Controls 1507
    8.3 Batch Control Description, Terminology, and Standard S88 1528
    8.4 Batch Processes and their Automation 1544
    8.5 Blending and Ratio Controls 1558
    8.6 Boiler Control and Optimization 1572
    8.7 Centrifuge Controls 1632
    8.8 Chemical Reactors: Batch Sequencing 1640
    8.9 Chemical Reactors: Basic Control Strategies 1664
    8.10 Chemical Reactors: Control and Optimization 1697
    8.11 Chemical Reactors: Simulation and Modeling 1711
    8.12 Chiller Control 1720
    8.13 Chiller Optimization 1729
    8.14 Clean-Room Controls and Optimization 1753
    8.15 Compressor Control and Optimization 1763
    8.16 Cooling Tower Control 1794
    8.17 Cooling Tower Optimization 1805
    8.18 Crystallizer Controls 1811
    8.19 Distillation: Basic Controls 1820
    8.20 Distillation: Calculations of Relative Gains 1855
    8.21 Distillation: Optimization and Advanced Controls 1866
    8.22 Dryer Controls 1904
    8.23 Evaporator Controls 1914
    8.24 Extruder Controls 1932
    8.25 Fan Controls 1946
    8.26 Fuel Cell Controls 1952
    8.27 Furnace and Reformer Controls 1966
    8.28 Header-Supplied Distribution Control 1993
    8.29 Heat Exchanger Control and Optimization 2004
    8.30 Inert Gas Blanketing Controls 2025
    8.31 ORP Controls 2032
    8.32 pH Control 2044
    8.33 Power Plant Controls: Cogeneration and Combined Cycle 2057
    8.34 Pump Controls 2084
    8.35 Pump Optimization 2110
    8.36 Rolling Mill Controls 2116
    8.37 Separation Controls, Air 2123
    8.38 Steam Turbine Controls 2137
    8.39 Wastewater Treatment Controls 2152
    8.40 Water Supply Plant Controls 2172
    8.41 Well-Supplied Underground Gas Storage Controls 2194
Appendix 2209
    A.1 International System of Units 2210
    A.2 Engineering Conversion Factors 2220
    A.3 Chemical Resistance of Materials (Table A.3) 2242
    A.4 Composition of Metallic and Other Materials (Table A.4) 2251
    A.5 Steam and Water Tables 2254
    A.6 Friction Loss in Pipes 2262
    A.7 Tank Volumes 2266
    A.8 Partial List of Suppliers 2269
    A.9 Directory of “Lost” Companies (Revised 6/2004) 2295
    A.10 ISA Standards 2302


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Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation
  + Зміст
1 Calculus 7
1.1 Introduction to calculus 8
    1.2 The concept of differentiation 11
    1.3 The concept of integration 16
    1.4 How derivatives and integrals relate to one another 25
    1.5 Numerical differentiation 28
    1.6 Numerical integration 38
2 Physics 53
    2.1 Terms and Definitions 54
    2.2 Metric prefixes 55
    2.3 Unit conversions and physical constants 56
    2.3.1 Conversion formulae for temperature 59
    2.3.2 Conversion factors for distance 59
    2.3.3 Conversion factors for volume 59
    2.3.4 Conversion factors for velocity 59
    2.3.5 Conversion factors for mass 59
    2.3.6 Conversion factors for force 59
    2.3.7 Conversion factors for area 60
    2.3.8 Conversion factors for pressure (either all gauge or all absolute) 60
    2.3.9 Conversion factors for pressure (absolute pressure units only) 60
    2.3.10 Conversion factors for energy or work 60
    2.3.11 Conversion factors for power 60
    2.3.12 Terrestrial constants 61
    2.3.13 Properties of water 61
    2.3.14 Miscellaneous physical constants 62
    2.3.15 Weight densities of common materials 63
    2.4 Dimensional analysis 65
    2.5 The International System of Units 66
    2.6 Conservation Laws 67
    2.7 Classical mechanics 67
    2.7.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion 68
    2.7.2 Work, energy, and power 69
    2.7.3 Mechanical springs 78
    2.7.4 Rotational motion 80
    2.8 Elementary thermodynamics 86
    2.8.1 Heat versus Temperature 87
    2.8.2 Temperature 88
    2.8.3 Heat 90
    2.8.4 Heat transfer 91
    2.8.5 Specific heat and enthalpy 102
    2.8.6 Phase changes 109
    2.8.7 Phase diagrams and critical points 116
    2.8.8 Thermodynamic degrees of freedom 119
    2.8.9 Applications of phase changes 120
    2.9 Fluid mechanics 128
    2.9.1 Pressure 129
    2.9.2 Pascal’s Principle and hydrostatic pressure 134
    2.9.3 Fluid density expressions 139
    2.9.4 Manometers 141
    2.9.5 Systems of pressure measurement 145
    2.9.6 Buoyancy 148
    2.9.7 Gas Laws 154
    2.9.8 Fluid viscosity 156
    2.9.9 Reynolds number 157
    2.9.10 Law of Continuity 161
    2.9.11 Viscous flow 163
    2.9.12 Bernoulli’s equation 164
    2.9.13 Torricelli’s equation 174
    2.9.14 Flow through a venturi tube 175
3 Chemistry 181
    3.1 Terms and Definitions 183
    3.2 Atomic theory and chemical symbols 185
    3.3 Periodic table of the elements 190
    3.4 Electronic structure 194
    3.5 Spectroscopy 202
    3.5.1 Emission spectroscopy 206
    3.5.2 Absorption spectroscopy 209
    3.6 Formulae for common chemical compounds 211
    3.7 Molecular quantities 215
    3.8 Stoichiometry 217
    3.8.1 Balancing chemical equations by trial-and-error 218
    3.8.2 Balancing chemical equations using algebra 220
    3.8.3 Stoichiometric ratios 223
    3.9 Energy in chemical reactions 225
    3.10 Periodic table of the ions 229
    3.11 Ions in liquid solutions 230
    3.12 pH 231
4 DC electricity 237
    4.1 Electrical voltage 238
    4.2 Electrical current 244
    4.2.1 Electron versus conventional flow 247
    4.3 Electrical resistance and Ohm’s Law 253
    4.4 Series versus parallel circuits 256
    4.5 Kirchhoff’s Laws 260
    4.6 Electrical sources and loads 263
    4.7 Resistors 266
    4.8 Bridge circuits 267
    4.8.1 Component measurement 268
    4.8.2 Sensor signal conditioning 270
    4.9 Electromagnetism 276
    4.10 Capacitors 282
    4.11 Inductors 284
5 AC electricity 287
    5.1 RMS quantities 288
    5.2 Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance 292
    5.3 Series and parallel circuits 292
    5.4 Phasor mathematics 293
    5.4.1 Crank diagrams and phase shifts 293
    5.4.2 Complex numbers and phase shifts 298
    5.4.3 Phasor expressions of impedance 301
    5.4.4 Euler’s Relation and crank diagrams 306
    5.4.5 The s variable 310
    5.5 Polyphase AC power 312
    5.5.1 Delta and Wye configurations 316
    5.5.2 Power in three-phase circuits 320
    5.5.3 Grounded three-phase circuits 322
    5.6 Transmission lines 325
    5.6.1 Open-ended transmission lines 326
    5.6.2 Shorted transmission lines 328
    5.6.3 Properly terminated transmission lines 330
    5.6.4 Discontinuities 332
    5.6.5 Velocity factor 332
    5.6.6 Cable losses 332
    5.7 Antennas 333
    5.7.1 Maxwell and Hertz 337
    5.7.2 Antenna size 339
    5.7.3 Antenna orientation and directionality 340
6 Introduction to Industrial Instrumentation 345
    6.1 Example: boiler water level control system 348
    6.2 Example: wastewater disinfection 353
    6.3 Example: chemical reactor temperature control 355
    6.4 Other types of instruments 356
    6.4.1 Indicators 357
    6.4.2 Recorders 360
    6.4.3 Process switches and alarms 363
    6.5 Summary 372
7 Instrumentation documents 375
    7.1 Process Flow Diagrams 377
    7.2 Process and Instrument Diagrams 379
    7.3 Loop diagrams 381
    7.4 Functional diagrams 384
    7.5 Instrument and process equipment symbols 387
    7.5.1 Line types 388
    7.5.2 Process/Instrument line connections 389
    7.5.3 Instrument bubbles 389
    7.5.4 Process valve types 390
    7.5.5 Valve actuator types 391
    7.5.6 Valve failure mode 392
    7.5.7 Liquid level measurement devices 393
    7.5.8 Flow measurement devices (flowing left-to-right) 394
    7.5.9 Process equipment 396
    7.5.10 Functional diagram symbols 397
    7.5.11 Single-line electrical diagram symbols 398
    7.5.12 Fluid power diagram symbols 400
    7.6 Instrument identification tags 402
8 Instrument connections 407
    8.1 Pipe and pipe fittings 407
    8.1.1 Flanged pipe fittings 408
    8.1.2 Tapered thread pipe fittings 415
    8.1.3 Parallel thread pipe fittings 418
    8.1.4 Sanitary pipe fittings 419
    8.2 Tube and tube fittings 423
    8.2.1 Compression tube fittings 424
    8.2.2 Common tube fitting types and names 428
    8.2.3 Bending instrument tubing 431
    8.2.4 Special tubing tools 433
    8.3 Electrical signal and control wiring 435
    8.3.1 Connections and wire terminations 436
    8.3.2 DIN rail 445
    8.3.3 Cable routing 448
    8.3.4 Signal coupling and cable separation 456
    8.3.5 Electric field (capacitive) de-coupling 461
    8.3.6 Magnetic field (inductive) de-coupling 467
    8.3.7 High-frequency signal cables 470
9 Discrete process measurement 473
    9.1 “Normal” status of a switch 474
    9.2 Hand switches 476
    9.3 Limit switches 478
    9.4 Proximity switches 480
    9.5 Pressure switches 485
    9.6 Level switches 490
    9.6.1 Float-type level switches 491
    9.6.2 Tuning fork level switches 493
    9.6.3 Paddle-wheel level switches 494
    9.6.4 Ultrasonic level switches 495
    9.6.5 Capacitive level switches 496
    9.6.6 Conductive level switches 497
    9.7 Temperature switches 499
    9.8 Flow switches 503
10 Discrete control elements 505
    10.1 On/off valves 506
    10.2 Fluid power systems 508
    10.3 Solenoid valves 518
    10.3.1 2-way solenoid valves 519
    10.3.2 3-way solenoid valves 522
    10.3.3 4-way solenoid valves 526
    10.3.4 Normal energization states 531
    10.4 On/off electric motor control circuits 534
    10.4.1 AC induction motors 535
    10.4.2 Motor contactors 540
    10.4.3 Motor protection 542
    10.4.4 Motor control circuit wiring 551
11 Relay control systems 557
    11.1 Control relays 559
    11.2 Relay circuits 563
12 Programmable Logic Controllers 571
    12.1 PLC examples 572
    12.2 Input/Output (I/O) capabilities 581
    12.2.1 Discrete I/O 583
    12.2.2 Analog I/O 590
    12.2.3 Network I/O 592
    12.3 Logic programming 593
    12.3.1 Relating I/O status to virtual elements 594
    12.3.2 Memory maps and I/O addressing 602
    12.4 Ladder Diagram (LD) programming 608
    12.4.1 Contacts and coils 610
    12.4.2 Counters 628
    12.4.3 Timers 633
    12.4.4 Data comparison instructions 638
    12.4.5 Math instructions 641
    12.4.6 Sequencers 644
    12.5 Structured Text (ST) programming 654
    12.6 Instruction List (IL) programming 654
    12.7 Function Block Diagram (FBD) programming 654
    12.8 Sequential Function Chart (SFC) programming 654
    12.9 Human-Machine Interfaces 655
    12.10How to teach yourself PLC programming 661
13 Analog electronic instrumentation 665
    13.1 4 to 20 mA analog current signals 665
    13.2 Relating 4 to 20 mA signals to instrument variables 668
    13.2.1 Example calculation: controller output to valve 671
    13.2.2 Example calculation: flow transmitter 672
    13.2.3 Example calculation: temperature transmitter 674
    13.2.4 Example calculation: pH transmitter 677
    13.2.5 Example calculation: reverse-acting I/P transducer signal 679
    13.2.6 Example calculation: PLC analog input scaling 681
    13.2.7 Graphical interpretation of signal ranges 684
    13.2.8 Thinking in terms of percent 686
    13.3 Controller output current loops 689
    13.4 4-wire (“self-powered”) transmitter current loops 691
    13.5 2-wire (“loop-powered”) transmitter current loops 693
    13.6 Troubleshooting current loops 695
    13.6.1 Using a standard milliammeter to measure loop current 697
    13.6.2 Using a clamp-on milliammeter to measure loop current 699
    13.6.3 Using “test” diodes to measure loop current 700
    13.6.4 Using shunt resistors to measure loop current 702
    13.6.5 Troubleshooting current loops with voltage measurements 703
    13.6.6 Using loop calibrators 707
    13.6.7 NAMUR signal levels 714
14 Pneumatic instrumentation 715
    14.1 Pneumatic sensing elements 721
    14.2 Self-balancing pneumatic instrument principles 723
    14.3 Pilot valves and pneumatic amplifying relays 728
    14.4 Analogy to opamp circuits 738
    14.5 Analysis of practical pneumatic instruments 749
    14.5.1 Foxboro model 13A differential pressure transmitter 750
    14.5.2 Foxboro model E69 “I/P” electro-pneumatic transducer 755
    14.5.3 Fisher model 546 “I/P” electro-pneumatic transducer 760
    14.5.4 Fisher-Rosemount model 846 “I/P” electro-pneumatic transducer 764
    14.6 Proper care and feeding of pneumatic instruments 767
    14.7 Advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic instruments 768
15 Digital data acquisition and networks 771
    15.1 Digital representation of numerical data 775
    15.1.1 Integer number formats 776
    15.1.2 Fixed-point number formats 778
    15.1.3 Floating-point number formats 779
    15.1.4 Example of industrial number formats 781
    15.2 Digital representation of text 783
    15.2.1 Morse and Baudot codes 784
    15.2.2 EBCDIC and ASCII 785
    15.2.3 Unicode 787
    15.3 Analog-digital conversion 787
    15.3.1 Converter resolution 788
    15.3.2 Converter sampling rate 793
    15.4 Analog signal conditioning and referencing 795
    15.4.1 Instrumentation amplifiers 796
    15.4.2 Analog input references and connections 805
    15.5 Digital data communication theory 818
    15.5.1 Serial communication principles 820
    15.5.2 Physical encoding of bits 823
    15.5.3 Communication speed 826
    15.5.4 Data frames 828
    15.5.5 Channel arbitration 836
    15.5.6 The OSI Reference Model 842
    15.6 EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 networks 845
    15.6.1 EIA/TIA-232 846
    15.6.2 EIA/TIA-422 and EIA/TIA-485 850
    15.7 Ethernet networks 857
    15.7.1 Repeaters (hubs) 858
    15.7.2 Ethernet cabling 861
    15.7.3 Switching hubs 865
    15.8 Internet Protocol (IP) 867
    15.8.1 IP addresses 868
    15.8.2 Subnetworks and subnet masks 872
    15.8.3 Routing tables 876
    15.8.4 IP version 6 877
    15.8.5 DNS 878
    15.8.6 Command-line diagnostic utilities 879
    15.9 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 882
    15.10The HART digital/analog hybrid standard 884
    15.10.1Basic concept of HART 885
    15.10.2HART physical layer 890
    15.10.3HART multidrop mode 896
    15.10.4HART multi-variable transmitters and burst mode 897
    15.11Modbus 898
    15.11.1Modbus data frames 899
    15.11.2Modbus function codes and addresses 901
    15.11.3Modbus function command formats 902
16 FOUNDATION Fieldbus instrumentation 911
    16.1 FF design philosophy 912
    16.2 H1 FF Physical layer 918
    16.2.1 Segment topology 919
    16.2.2 Coupling devices 923
    16.2.3 Electrical parameters 926
    16.2.4 Cable types 928
    16.2.5 Segment design 931
    16.3 H1 FF Data Link layer 933
    16.3.1 Device addressing 935
    16.3.2 Communication management 936
    16.3.3 Device capability 945
    16.4 FF function blocks 945
    16.4.1 Analog function blocks versus digital function blocks 946
    16.4.2 Function block location 947
    16.4.3 Standard function blocks 952
    16.4.4 Device-specific function blocks 954
    16.4.5 FF signal status 955
    16.4.6 Function block modes 957
    16.5 H1 FF device configuration and commissioning 958
    16.5.1 Configuration files 958
    16.5.2 Device commissioning 960
    16.5.3 Calibration and ranging 969
    16.6 H1 FF segment troubleshooting 975
    16.6.1 Cable resistance 976
    16.6.2 Signal strength 976
    16.6.3 Electrical noise 977
    16.6.4 Using an oscilloscope on H1 segments 977
    16.6.5 Message re-transmissions 979
17 Wireless instrumentation 981
    17.1 Radio systems 982
    17.1.1 Decibels 984
    17.1.2 Antenna radiation patterns 991
    17.1.3 Antenna gain calculations 994
    17.1.4 Effective radiated power 996
    17.1.5 RF link budget 997
    17.1.6 Fresnel zones 1002
    17.2 WirelessHART 1004
    17.2.1 Introduction to WirelessHART 1005
    17.2.2 WirelessHART network protocol 1009
    17.2.3 WirelessHART network gateway device 1012
    17.2.4 WirelessHART device commissioning and configuration 1016
    18 Instrument calibration 1021
    18.1 Calibration versus re-ranging 1021
    18.2 Zero and span adjustments (analog instruments) 1022
    18.3 Typical calibration errors 1025
    18.3.1 As-found and as-left documentation 1030
    18.3.2 Up-tests and Down-tests 1031
    18.4 Damping adjustments 1032
    18.5 LRV and URV settings, digital trim (digital transmitters) 1036
    18.6 An analogy for calibration versus ranging 1042
    18.7 Calibration procedures 1043
    18.7.1 Linear instruments 1043
    18.7.2 Nonlinear instruments 1044
    18.7.3 Discrete instruments 1045
    18.8 Instrument turndown 1046
    18.9 NIST traceability 1047
    18.10Practical calibration standards 1050
    18.10.1Electrical standards 1052
    18.10.2Temperature standards 1054
    18.10.3Pressure standards 1060
    18.10.4Flow standards 1065
    18.10.5Analytical standards 1066
19 Continuous pressure measurement 1071
    19.1 Manometers 1072
    19.2 Mechanical pressure elements 1078
    19.3 Electrical pressure elements 1084
    19.3.1 Piezoresistive (strain gauge) sensors 1085
    19.3.2 Differential capacitance sensors 1090
    19.3.3 Resonant element sensors 1098
    19.3.4 Mechanical adaptations 1101
    19.4 Force-balance pressure transmitters 1102
    19.5 Differential pressure transmitters 1105
    19.5.1 DP transmitter construction and behavior 1106
    19.5.2 DP transmitter applications 1113
    19.5.3 Inferential measurement applications 1119
    19.6 Pressure sensor accessories 1122
    19.6.1 Valve manifolds 1123
    19.6.2 Bleed (vent) fittings 1129
    19.6.3 Pressure pulsation damping 1130
    19.6.4 Remote and chemical seals 1133
    19.6.5 Filled impulse lines 1143
    19.6.6 Purged impulse lines 1145
    19.6.7 Heat-traced impulse lines 1147
    19.6.8 Water traps and pigtail siphons 1150
    19.6.9 Mounting brackets 1152
    19.6.10Heated enclosures 1153
    19.7 Process/instrument suitability 1155
20 Continuous level measurement 1159
    20.1 Level gauges (sightglasses) 1159
    20.1.1 Basic concepts of sightglasses 1160
    20.1.2 Interface problems 1162
    20.1.3 Temperature problems 1164
    20.2 Float 1165
    20.3 Hydrostatic pressure 1171
    20.3.1 Pressure of a fluid column 1172
    20.3.2 Bubbler systems 1177
    20.3.3 Transmitter suppression and elevation 1181
    20.3.4 Compensated leg systems 1185
    20.3.5 Tank expert systems 1193
    20.3.6 Hydrostatic interface level measurement 1197
    20.4 Displacement 1203
    20.4.1 Buoyant-force instruments 1204
    20.4.2 Torque tubes 1209
    20.4.3 Displacement interface level measurement 1216
    20.5 Echo 1219
    20.5.1 Ultrasonic level measurement 1221
    20.5.2 Radar level measurement 1226
    20.5.3 Laser level measurement 1238
    20.5.4 Magnetostrictive level measurement 1239
    20.6 Weight 1243
    20.7 Capacitive 1248
    20.8 Radiation 1251
    20.9 Level sensor accessories 1254
21 Continuous temperature measurement 1259
    21.1 Bi-metal temperature sensors 1261
    21.2 Filled-bulb temperature sensors 1263
    21.3 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) 1267
    21.3.1 Temperature coefficient of resistance (α) 1268
    21.3.2 Two-wire RTD circuits 1270
    21.3.3 Four-wire RTD circuits 1271
    21.3.4 Three-wire RTD circuits 1272
    21.3.5 Proper RTD sensor connections 1275
    21.3.6 Self-heating error 1278
    21.4 Thermocouples 1279
    21.4.1 Dissimilar metal junctions 1280
    21.4.2 Thermocouple types 1282
    21.4.3 Connector and tip styles 1283
    21.4.4 Manually interpreting thermocouple voltages 1287
    21.4.5 Reference junction compensation 1289
    21.4.6 Law of Intermediate Metals 1293
    21.4.7 Software compensation 1297
    21.4.8 Extension wire 1299
    21.4.9 Side-effects of reference junction compensation 1304
    21.4.10Burnout detection 1310
    21.5 Non-contact temperature sensors 1311
    21.5.1 Concentrating pyrometers 1312
    21.5.2 Distance considerations 1315
    21.5.3 Emissivity 1320
    21.5.4 Thermal imaging 1320
    21.6 Temperature sensor accessories 1324
    21.7 Process/instrument suitability 1328
22 Continuous fluid flow measurement 1331
    22.1 Pressure-based flowmeters 1332
    22.1.1 Venturi tubes and basic principles 1338
    22.1.2 Volumetric flow calculations 1344
    22.1.3 Mass flow calculations 1347
    22.1.4 Square-root characterization 1350
    22.1.5 Orifice plates 1359
    22.1.6 Other differential producers 1374
    22.1.7 Proper installation 1382
    22.1.8 High-accuracy flow measurement 1387
    22.1.9 Equation summary 1394
    22.2 Laminar flowmeters 1397
    22.3 Variable-area flowmeters 1398
    22.3.1 Rotameters 1399
    22.3.2 Weirs and flumes 1402
    22.4 Velocity-based flowmeters 1410
    22.4.1 Turbine flowmeters 1411
    22.4.2 Vortex flowmeters 1420
    22.4.3 Magnetic flowmeters 1424
    22.4.4 Ultrasonic flowmeters 1435
    22.5 Positive displacement flowmeters 1443
    22.6 Standardized volumetric flow 1446
    22.7 True mass flowmeters 1452
    22.7.1 Coriolis flowmeters 1455
    22.7.2 Thermal flowmeters 1470
    22.8 Weighfeeders 1474
    22.9 Change-of-quantity flow measurement 1477
    22.10Insertion flowmeters 1480
    22.11Process/instrument suitability 1486
23 Continuous analytical measurement 1489
    23.1 Conductivity measurement 1490
    23.1.1 Dissociation and ionization in aqueous solutions 1491
    23.1.2 Two-electrode conductivity probes 1492
    23.1.3 Four-electrode conductivity probes 1494
    23.1.4 Electrodeless conductivity probes 1497
    23.2 pH measurement 1499
    23.2.1 Colorimetric pH measurement 1499
    23.2.2 Potentiometric pH measurement 1500
    23.3 Chromatography 1520
    23.3.1 Manual chromatography methods 1521
    23.3.2 Automated chromatographs 1522
    23.3.3 Species identification 1524
    23.3.4 Chromatograph detectors 1525
    23.3.5 Measuring species concentration 1527
    23.3.6 Industrial applications of chromatographs 1530
    23.3.7 Chromatograph sample valves 1533
    23.3.8 Improving chromatograph analysis time 1536
    23.4 Optical analyses 1541
    23.4.1 Dispersive spectroscopy 1548
    23.4.2 Non-dispersive spectroscopy 1551
    23.4.3 Fluorescence 1570
    23.4.4 Chemiluminescence 1578
    23.5 Analyzer sample systems 1582
    23.6 Safety gas analyzers 1587
    23.6.1 Oxygen gas 1591
    23.6.2 Lower explosive limit (LEL) 1592
    23.6.3 Hydrogen sulfide gas 1593
    23.6.4 Carbon monoxide gas 1594
    23.6.5 Chlorine gas 1595
24 Machine vibration measurement 1599
    24.1 Vibration physics 1599
    24.1.1 Sinusoidal vibrations 1600
    24.1.2 Non-sinusoidal vibrations 1605
    24.2 Vibration sensors 1611
    24.3 Monitoring hardware 1615
    24.4 Mechanical vibration switches 1618
25 Signal characterization 1621
    25.1 Flow measurement from differential pressure 1622
    25.2 Flow measurement in open channels 1629
    25.3 Liquid volume measurement 1632
    25.4 Radiative temperature measurement 1641
    25.5 Analytical measurements 1642
26 Control valves 1647
    26.1 Sliding-stem valves 1648
    26.1.1 Globe valves 1649
    26.1.2 Gate valves 1657
    26.1.3 Diaphragm valves 1657
    26.2 Rotary-stem valves 1659
    26.2.1 Ball valves 1660
    26.2.2 Butterfly valves 1660
    26.2.3 Disk valves 1661
    26.3 Dampers and louvres 1662
    26.4 Valve packing 1665
    26.5 Valve seat leakage 1674
    26.6 Control valve actuators 1675
    26.6.1 Pneumatic actuators 1676
    26.6.2 Hydraulic actuators 1684
    26.6.3 Self-operated valves 1685
    26.6.4 Electric actuators 1689
    26.6.5 Hand (manual) actuators 1693
    26.7 Valve failure mode 1693
    26.7.1 Direct/reverse actions 1694
    26.7.2 Available failure modes 1696
    26.7.3 Selecting the proper failure mode 1697
    26.8 Actuator bench-set 1699
    26.9 Pneumatic actuator response 1704
    26.10Valve positioners 1708
    26.10.1Force-balance pneumatic positioners 1713
    26.10.2Motion-balance pneumatic positioners 1717
    26.10.3Electronic positioners 1720
    26.11Split-ranging 1725
    26.11.1Complementary valve sequencing 1726
    26.11.2Exclusive valve sequencing 1728
    26.11.3Progressive valve sequencing 1730
    26.11.4Valve sequencing implementations 1732
    26.12Control valve sizing 1739
    26.12.1Physics of energy dissipation in a turbulent fluid stream 1740
    26.12.2 Importance of proper valve sizing 1745
    26.12.3Gas valve sizing 1750
    26.12.4Relative flow capacity 1751
    26.13Control valve characterization 1752
    26.13.1 Inherent versus installed characteristics 1753
    26.13.2Control valve performance with constant pressure 1755
    26.13.3Control valve performance with varying pressure 1758
    26.13.4Characterized valve trim 1761
    26.14Control valve problems 1766
    26.14.1Mechanical friction 1767
    26.14.2Flashing 1771
    26.14.3Cavitation 1775
    26.14.4Choked flow 1782
    26.14.5Valve noise 1784
    26.14.6Erosion 1786
    26.14.7Chemical attack 1791
27 Variable-speed motor controls 1795
    27.1 DC motor speed control 1797
    27.2 AC motor speed control 1805
    27.3 AC motor braking 1810
    27.3.1 DC injection braking 1811
    27.3.2 Dynamic braking 1812
    27.3.3 Regenerative braking 1814
    27.3.4 Plugging 1816
    27.4 Motor drive features 1817
    27.5 Use of line reactors 1818
    27.6 Metering pumps 1821
28 Closed-loop control 1823
    28.1 Basic feedback control principles 1824
    28.2 On/off control 1831
    28.3 Proportional-only control 1833
    28.4 Proportional-only offset 1840
    28.5 Integral (reset) control 1845
    28.6 Derivative (rate) control 1850
    28.7 Summary of PID control terms 1852
    28.7.1 Proportional control mode (P) 1852
    28.7.2 Integral control mode (I) 1853
    28.7.3 Derivative control mode (D) 1854
    28.8 P, I, and D responses graphed 1854
    28.8.1 Responses to a single step-change 1855
    28.8.2 Responses to a momentary step-and-return 1856
    28.8.3 Responses to two momentary steps-and-returns 1858
    28.8.4 Responses to a ramp-and-hold 1859
    28.8.5 Responses to an up-and-down ramp 1860
    28.8.6 Responses to a sine wavelet 1861
    28.8.7 Note to students regarding quantitative graphing 1863
    28.9 Different PID equations 1867
    28.9.1 Parallel PID equation 1868
    28.9.2 Ideal PID equation 1869
    28.9.3 Series PID equation 1870
    28.10Pneumatic PID controllers 1871
    28.10.1Proportional control action 1872
    28.10.2Automatic and manual modes 1876
    28.10.3Derivative control action 1878
    28.10.4 Integral control action 1879
    28.10.5Fisher MultiTrol 1882
    28.10.6Foxboro model 43AP 1885
    28.10.7Foxboro model 130 1887
    28.10.8External reset (integral) feedback 1890
    28.11Analog electronic PID controllers 1892
    28.11.1Proportional control action 1893
    28.11.2Derivative and integral control actions 1895
    28.11.3Full-PID circuit design 1898
    28.11.4 Single-loop analog controllers 1901
    28.11.5Multi-loop analog control systems 1903
    28.12Digital PID controllers 1906
    28.12.1 Stand-alone digital controllers 1906
    28.12.2Direct digital control (DDC) 1911
    28.12.3SCADA and telemetry systems 1918
    28.12.4Distributed Control Systems (DCS) 1923
    28.12.5Fieldbus control 1929
    28.13Practical PID controller features 1932
    28.13.1Manual and automatic modes 1933
    28.13.2 Output and setpoint tracking 1934
    28.13.3Alarm capabilities 1936
    28.13.4 Output and setpoint limiting 1936
    28.13.5 Security 1937
    28.14Digital PID algorithms 1938
    28.14.1 Introduction to pseudocode 1938
    28.14.2Position versus velocity algorithms 1944
    28.15Note to students 1949
    28.15.1Proportional-only control action 1950
    28.15.2 Integral-only control action 1951
    28.15.3Proportional plus integral control action 1952
    28.15.4Proportional plus derivative control action 1953
    28.15.5Full PID control action 1954
29 Process dynamics and PID controller tuning 1957
    29.1 Process characteristics 1958
    29.1.1 Self-regulating processes 1959
    29.1.2 Integrating processes 1962
    29.1.3 Runaway processes 1969
    29.1.4 Steady-state process gain 1974
    29.1.5 Lag time 1979
    29.1.6 Multiple lags (orders) 1985
    29.1.7 Dead time 1991
    29.1.8 Hysteresis 1996
    29.2 Before you tune 1999
    29.2.1 Identifying operational needs 2000
    29.2.2 Identifying process and system hazards 2002
    29.2.3 Identifying the problem(s) 2003
    29.2.4 Final precautions 2004
    29.3 Quantitative PID tuning procedures 2005
    29.3.1 Ziegler-Nichols closed-loop (“Ultimate Gain”) 2006
    29.3.2 Ziegler-Nichols open-loop 2010
    29.4 Heuristic PID tuning procedures 2013
    29.4.1 Features of P, I, and D actions 2014
    29.4.2 Tuning recommendations based on process dynamics 2015
    29.4.3 Recognizing an over-tuned controller 2016
    29.5 Tuning techniques compared 2021
    29.5.1 Tuning a “generic” process 2022
    29.5.2 Tuning a liquid level process 2027
    29.5.3 Tuning a temperature process 2031
    29.6 Note to students 2035
    29.6.1 Electrically simulating a process 2036
    29.6.2 Building a “Desktop Process” unit 2037
    29.6.3 Simulating a process by computer 2041
30 Basic process control strategies 2043
    30.1 Supervisory control 2044
    30.2 Cascade control 2046
    30.3 Ratio control 2054
    30.4 Relation control 2062
    30.5 Feedforward control 2064
    30.5.1 Load Compensation 2065
    30.5.2 Proportioning feedforward action 2076
    30.6 Feedforward with dynamic compensation 2081
    30.6.1 Dead time compensation 2082
    30.6.2 Lag time compensation 2088
    30.6.3 Lead/Lag and dead time function blocks 2094
    30.7 Limit, Selector, and Override controls 2105
    30.7.1 Limit controls 2108
    30.7.2 Selector controls 2113
    30.7.3 Override controls 2122
31 Process safety and instrumentation 2129
    31.1 Classified areas and electrical safety measures 2129
    31.1.1 Classified area taxonomy 2130
    31.1.2 Explosive limits 2132
    31.1.3 Protective measures 2135
    31.2 Concepts of probability 2140
    31.2.1 Mathematical probability 2141
    31.2.2 Laws of probability 2143
    31.3 Practical measures of reliability 2152
    31.3.1 Failure rate and MTBF 2153
    31.3.2 The “bathtub” curve 2159
    31.3.3 Reliability 2161
    31.3.4 Probability of failure on demand (PFD) 2164
    31.4 High-reliability systems 2166
    31.4.1 Design and selection for reliability 2167
    31.4.2 Preventive maintenance 2168
    31.4.3 Component de-rating 2170
    31.4.4 Redundant components 2171
    31.4.5 Proof tests and self-diagnostics 2176
    31.5 Overpressure protection devices 2181
    31.5.1 Rupture disks 2183
    31.5.2 Direct-actuated safety and relief valves 2184
    31.5.3 Pilot-operated safety and relief valves 2194
    31.6 Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems 2195
    31.6.1 SIS sensors 2199
    31.6.2 SIS controllers (logic solvers) 2204
    31.6.3 SIS final control elements 2206
    31.6.4 Safety Integrity Levels 2210
    31.6.5 SIS example: burner management systems 2211
    31.6.6 SIS example: water treatment oxygen purge system 2218
    31.6.7 SIS example: nuclear reactor scram controls 2222
32 Problem-solving and diagnostic strategies 2229
    32.1 General problem-solving techniques 2229
    32.1.1 Identifying and classifying all “known” conditions 2230
    32.1.2 Re-cast the problem in a different format 2230
    32.1.3 Using thought experiments 2231
    32.2 Mathematical problem-solving techniques 2231
    32.2.1 Double-checking calculations 2232
    32.3 Problem-solving by simplification 2236
    32.3.1 Limiting cases 2237
    32.4 Classic diagnostic mistakes 2243
    32.5 Helpful “tricks” using a digital multimeter (DMM) 2243
    32.5.1 Recording unattended measurements 2244
    32.5.2 Avoiding “phantom” voltage readings 2245
    32.5.3 Non-contact AC voltage detection 2248
    32.5.4 Detecting AC power harmonics 2249
    32.5.5 Identifying noise in DC signal paths 2250
    32.5.6 Generating test voltages 2251
    32.5.7 Using the meter as a temporary jumper 2252
A Flip-book animations 2253
    A.1 Polyphase light bulbs animated 2253
    A.2 Polyphase induction motor animated 2280
    A.3 Differentiation and integration animated 2305
    A.4 Basic chromatograph operation 2442
B Doctor Strangeflow, or how I learned to relax and love Reynolds numbers 2503
C Disassembly of a sliding-stem control valve 2513
D How to use this book – some advice for teachers 2523
    D.1 Teaching technical theory 2524
    D.1.1 The problem with lecture 2526
    D.1.2 A more accurate model of learning 2528
    D.1.3 The ultimate goal of education 2530
    D.2 Teaching technical practices (labwork) 2533
    D.3 Teaching diagnostic principles and practices 2540
    D.3.1 Deductive diagnostic exercises 2541
    D.3.2 Inductive diagnostic exercises 2548
    D.4 Practical topic coverage 2555
    D.5 Assessing student learning 2556
    D.6 Summary 2558
E Contributors 2559
    E.1 Error corrections 2560
    E.2 New content 2560
F Creative Commons Attribution License 2561
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